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Jivaro believe in a protective spirit that comes to them in a vision. This spirit, known as arutam , is thought to protect them from injury, disease, and death.
Jivaro may share in celebrations of national holidays if they are visiting an area where festivities are taking place. Jivaro rites of passage and celebrations are connected to their spiritual beliefs.
All personal milestones and important events have spiritual significance. The most important moment in a young male Jivaro's life is when he is encouraged to gain his arutam or protective spirit.
Parents fear that without this protective spirit, Jivaro youths will not survive into adulthood. At or before puberty, young male Jivaro are led deep into the forest.
There they consume a hallucinogenic drug called maikoa and then await a vision of the arutam soul that will protect them from danger. They may remain in the forest for days, fasting and bathing in a waterfall, while they await the sacred vision.
Once this power is received, the boy is allowed to participate in many adult activities. The Jivaro are a very sociable people.
When visiting a neighbor or relative's house, guests enjoy a hospitable welcome. Beer made from manioc cassava root is offered, and the family meal is shared.
Often, if the distances traveled are great, guests are invited to stay for several days. Banana leaves laid on the dirt floor serve as beds for visitors.
In contrast to Western cultures, it is the Jivaro men who are fussy about their appearance. A man may spend hours before a visit or party painting his face and putting decorative adornments on his clothes and in his hair.
Parrot feathers adorn the hair, and ear sticks are placed through holes in the ear. The fangs of a boa constrictor, thought to bring good luck, are a common gift for a potential bride.
If she returns the gestures of affection to her suitor, he may begin negotiations with the woman's father to marry her. Romantic love and mutual attraction are very important in the selection of a spouse.
The husband is obligated to pay a bride price a payment to her family or perform services for the wife's father. Jivaro families live in large one-room shelters without internal walls or rooms for privacy.
Traditional Jivaro houses are large ovals built from materials found in the forest. These shelters, called jivaria, generally house large families of about eight to ten people.
Contemporary Jivaro houses resemble the one pictured on the next page. However, only a small minority of Jivaro live in contemporary houses.
Jivaria houses are built by the male head of the household with help from his male relatives. Houses must be strong to withstand heavy rainfall.
Houses have very simple furniture: lowlying beds made of bamboo with no mattresses and shelves to store basic pottery.
The Jivaro are completely without political organization. The only unit of organization is the family group. The Jivaro population is widely dispersed, with an average of one to five miles one-and-a-half to eight kilometers between houses.
Families live in a house for no more than ten years, since the nearby supply of firewood and small game becomes depleted.
Families then move a few miles or kilometers away to an area richer in resources. The division of labor is partly the result of the belief that most things have either male or female souls.
Manioc cassava , for example, is thought to be female, so all tasks related to the planting, reaping, and processing of manioc are the domain of women.
Planting and reaping of corn, which has a male soul, are the responsibility of men. Most Jivaro families have one or two dogs. They are not kept as pets, but rather as an essential aid to hunting and for protection from enemies.
Dogs hold a privileged position in Jivaro households. Both men and women wear clothes made of plain brown cloth, occasionally painted with vertical stripes.
These homewoven clothes are durable and rugged and can last for many years. More recently, the Jivaro are acquiring Western clothing.
These manufactured clothes are often used for special occasions such as visits to neighboring families. The Jivaro have a varied diet of meat and vegetables that they obtain from many sources.
The primary foods of their diet are the vegetables grown in their gardens. These are supplemented by searching for wild plantains and other edible plants.
Protein in the diet is provided by raising chickens and hunting wild game. Most Jivaro children receive little formal education, although programs are being instituted to educate all Jivaro children.
In some remote Jivaro settlements, lessons are broadcast via radio. Jivaro children are also taught the skills needed for survival in the jungle.
For example, they are taught how to swim at a very young age. Due to the widely dispersed population, most children have little contact with playmates other than their siblings.
Songs and music are a part of Jivaro daily life. Songs accompany many daily events and special occasions. The Jivaro are primarily farmers.
They grow several staple crops, including manioc cassava root, sweet potatoes, sugar cane, peanuts, and plantains. The women spend a large part of the day keeping the large garden free of weeds.
Women are also responsible for producing pottery for storing food and drinks. The men have more varied duties, including clearing the forest, collecting firewood, and hunting.
They also craft blowguns and spears for hunting game. Making a blowgun can take as long as a couple of weeks from start to finish.
The mouthpiece is made of bone. Darts are made quickly by sharpening palm leaves. Curare, a poison that paralyzes, is placed on the tip of the dart.
Darts can be shot nearly one hundred feet thirty meters to reach monkeys in trees or large birds. They frequently trade skins and featherworked handicrafts to obtain modern goods.
In addition, some Jivaro work as laborers to obtain cash. Particularly valued are machetes, axes, and guns, useful tools for life in the forest.
The Jivaro are a festive people, and parties lasting through the night or even over several days are common. The main form of entertainment is dancing and drinking manioc cassava beer with neighbors in the evening.
After a few hours spent drinking and talking, drums are brought out. Dancing and singing follow, usually until dawn.
For the Jivaro, these parties provide a rare occasion for social interaction and communication in a society where there is almost no contact with people outside the family.
Women learn to make pottery from a very young age. The art of weaving is reserved exclusively for men. The skills to make these traditional items are still taught to successive generations.
However, the growing availability of Western goods has diminished the quality of traditional goods. Modern society continues to challenge traditional culture.
Like many native people, the Jivaro struggle to hang on to their traditional way of life as contemporary influences enter their world.
Weyer, Edward. Primitive Peoples Today. New York : Doubleday and Company, The Jivaro god, Tsungi, is the god of shamanism, and the Jivaro goddess, Nungüi , refers to mother earth.
Nungüi is described as being a short and heavy-set woman, dressed in a black dress. According to Jivaro belief; if Nungüi dances in a woman's garden, it will be productive during the harvest season.
Living deep underground, she emerges at night to dance in the gardens. Women sing to Nungui to ask her to protect the gardens, and they carefully weed the gardens daily to appease her.
Jivaro believe in a protective spirit that comes to them through spirit visions. This spirit, known as Arutam is thought to protect them from injury, disease, and death.
There are different creators and gods that explain the origins of man and animal, the occurrence of natural events and relationships that exist in daily life.
Some commonly seen animals are the anaconda, pangi , and the giant butterfly wampang. Unlike many other cultures, the Jivaro cultures place more emphasis on gardening horticulture than they do on hunting.
This is due to the unpredictable nature of hunting in the Amazonian region, where the Jivaro call home. As a result, a ritualistic approach to gardening sprouted from the Jivaro cultures.
Owing to the belief of spirits residing in the plants, the garden is regarded as a place of great spiritual significance. Like the inside of a temple, the garden is a place where one receives sanctuary.
It offers privacy from prying eyes and ears and is therefore the site of a certain amount of intra- and extra-marital sexual activity" Brown, Ayahuasca ceremonies play a large role in the Jivaro culture.
These ceremonies are used for healing practices usually directed toward enchanting spirits. Here, Bradley C.
Bennett makes note of these healing practices,. The shaman goes about relieving the patient of any harmful spirits that may be attacking his or her body.
The Jivaro also believe in an act of what may be considered telling the future or telling time. Bennett makes another note of the Jivaro and their ayahuasca ceremonies, where a Jivaro will hire a shaman to tell of far away friends and family.
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Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. In general, musical roles are sharply divided by gender; women do not perform in collective rituals and in some communities are not allowed to see ritual flutes.
Each community has its own preferred vocal quality, and some peoples vary their vocal styles….